Electric Motor Types Comparative
This guide will help you learn the basics of e-motors, available types and how to choose the correct ones. Choosing the best motor to fit your application can be an overwhelming experience for those less familiar with them. We will provide a quick way to compare all of them.
Choosing the perfect motor for your electric vehicle can be difficult. It's important to keep in mind that you can't simply choose a motor but you'll have to carefully weigh several different motors and match one to your system. Many people don't realize the importance of electric system, so they just throw a standard motor on their vehicle, and this partially defeats the purpose of having an electric vehicle.
In the rotor of synchronous motors with permanent excitation, permanent magnets are used. In this case neodymium-iron-boron magnets are used, they contributes significantly to increasing power density. If the magnets are arranged favourably in the rotor, reluctance torque can be utilised and the magnet material used can be reduced.
✅ High Power Density
❌ High Costs
The main feature of this motor is its rotor, which is designed with the use of low-loss magnetic laminated sheet and the application of rare earths surface magnets. The inner properties of this motor grant a significant power density as well as a remarkable precision in use, thanks to the application of reliable position sensors.
✅ Costant Torque
❌ High Speed Limited
In a reluctance motor, there's no permanent magnet. This makes it less expensive to produce, but requires a higher current. There are two types of reluctance motors: switched reluctance motors and synchronous reluctance motors. The former have a smaller torque ripple and a higher efficiency than the latter.
✅ Nice Performances
❌ Hard to Drive
When you think of electric motors, you probably picture a rotor with permanent magnets in it. But there is another kind of motor, called an externally excited synchronous motor, which has copper windings instead. This allows the magnetic field of the rotor to be controlled by changing the current to the windings.
✅ Competitive Cost
❌ Hard to Drive
An asynchronous motor has a rotating field that is rotating slower than the rotor. This means the rotor spins asynchronously to the magnetic field of the stator. The difference between them creates a voltage in the short circuit cage, which creates a magnetic force of the rotor.
❌ Low Efficiency
There are two types of axial flux motor: dual-rotor single stator, and single-rotor dual-stator. Axial flux machines provide more torque for a given volume of motor than a radial one, as the magnetic surface area is the face of the motor’s rotor rather than the outside diameter.
✅ Highest Power Density
❌ Extremely Expensive
We know that selecting the right motor can be a complicated process. Perhaps you’re in the early stages of a project that requires a motor, but you aren’t sure what type of motor best fits your application.
Maybe you’re in charge of purchasing motors and you’d like to better understand which specifications are important. Or maybe you’re just making sure the motor in your product is the right one. Whatever the case, our primary goal is to help you feel more comfortable selecting motors. Our approach will be to give you a background of the motor types as well as help you understand when and why one motor should be used over another.
We’ll show you how to take advantage of simple modifications to get the best motor for your application.